Wednesday, 17 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : Evolution of human on earth

Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.

One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years.
Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern human species, Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes. Humans and the great apes (large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees (including bonobos, or so-called “pygmy chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a common ancestor that lived between 8 and 6 million years ago. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa. 

Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these species are related or which ones simply died out. Many early human species -- certainly the majority of them – left no living descendants. Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species.

Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1.8 million years ago. They entered Europe somewhat later, between 1.5 million and 1 million years. Species of modern humans populated many parts of the world much later. For instance, people first came to Australia probably within the past 60,000 years and to the Americas within the past 30,000 years or so. The beginnings of agriculture and the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 12,000 years.

Paleoanthropology is the scientific study of human evolution. Paleoanthropology is a subfield of anthropology, the study of human culture, society, and biology. The field involves an understanding of the similarities and differences between humans and other species in their genes, body form, physiology, and behavior. Paleoanthropologists search for the roots of human physical traits and behavior. They seek to discover how evolution has shaped the potentials, tendencies, and limitations of all people. For many people, paleoanthropology is an exciting scientific field because it investigates the origin, over millions of years, of the universal and defining traits of our species. However, some people find the concept of human evolution troubling because it can seem not to fit with religious and other traditional beliefs about how people, other living things, and the world came to be. Nevertheless, many people have come to reconcile their beliefs with the scientific evidence.

Early human fossils and archeological remains offer the most important clues about this ancient past. These remains include bones, tools and any other evidence (such as footprints, evidence of hearths, or butchery marks on animal bones) left by earlier people. Usually, the remains were buried and preserved naturally. They are then found either on the surface (exposed by rain, rivers, and wind erosion) or by digging in the ground. By studying fossilized bones, scientists learn about the physical appearance of earlier humans and how it changed. Bone size, shape, and markings left by muscles tell us how those predecessors moved around, held tools, and how the size of their brains changed over a long time. Archeological evidence refers to the things earlier people made and the places where scientists find them. By studying this type of evidence, archeologists can understand how early humans made and used tools and lived in their environments.

The process of evolution involves a series of natural changes that cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct. All species or organisms have originated through the process of biological evolution. In animals that reproduce sexually, including humans, the term species refers to a group whose adult members regularly interbreed, resulting in fertile offspring -- that is, offspring themselves capable of reproducing. Scientists classify each species with a unique, two-part scientific name. In this system, modern humans are classified as Homo sapiens.

Evolution occurs when there is change in the genetic material -- the chemical molecule, DNA -- which is inherited from the parents, and especially in the proportions of different genes in a population. Genes represent the segments of DNA that provide the chemical code for producing proteins. Information contained in the DNA can change by a process known as mutation. The way particular genes are expressed – that is, how they influence the body or behavior of an organism -- can also change. Genes affect how the body and behavior of an organism develop during its life, and this is why genetically inherited characteristics can influence the likelihood of an organism’s survival and reproduction.

Evolution does not change any single individual. Instead, it changes the inherited means of growth and development that typify a population (a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular habitat). Parents pass adaptive genetic changes to their offspring, and ultimately these changes become common throughout a population. As a result, the offspring inherit those genetic characteristics that enhance their chances of survival and ability to give birth, which may work well until the environment changes. Over time, genetic change can alter a species' overall way of life, such as what it eats, how it grows, and where it can live. Human evolution took place as new genetic variations in early ancestor populations favored new abilities to adapt to environmental change and so altered the human way of life.

Monday, 15 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : Evolution of animals on earth

For many people animals are perhaps the most familiar, and most interesting, of living things which is created by nature. This may be because we are animals ourselves. As such, we have a number of features in common with all the organisms placed in the animal kingdom, and these common features indicate that we have a shared evolutionary history.

All animals and plants are classified as multicellular eukaryotes: their bodies are made up of large numbers of cells, and microscopic inspection of these cells reveals that they contain a nucleus and a number of other organelles. Compared to prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria, plants and animals have a relatively recent evolutionary origin. DNA evidence suggests that the first eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes, between 2500 and 1000 million years ago. That is, eukaryotes as a taxon date from the Proterozoic Era, the final Era of the Precambrian. Fossils of both simple unicellular and more complex multicellular organisms are found in abundance in rocks from this period of time. In fact, the name "Proterozoic" means "early life".

Plants and animals both owe their origins to endosymbiosis, a process where one cell ingests another, but for some reason then fails to digest it. The evidence for this lies in the way their cells function. Both plant and animal rely on structures called mitochondria to release energy in their cells, using aerobic respiration to produce the energy-carrying molecule ATP. There is considerable evidence that mitochondria evolved from free-living aerobic bacteria: they are the size of bacterial cells; they divide independently of the cell by binary fission; they have their own genome in the form of a single circular DNA molecule; their ribosomes are more similar to those of bacteria than to the ribosomes found in the eukaryote cell's cytoplasm; and like chloroplasts they are enclosed by a double membrane as would be expected if they derived from bacterial cells engulfed by another cell.
Like the plants, animals evolved in the sea. And that is where they remained for at least 600 million years. This is because, in the absence of a protective ozone layer, the land was bathed in lethal levels of UV radiation. Once photosynthesis had raised atmospheric oxygen levels high enough, the ozone layer formed, meaning that it was then possible for living things to venture onto the land.

The oldest fossil evidence of multicellular animals, or metazoans, is burrows that appear to have been made by smooth, wormlike organisms. Such trace fossils have been found in rocks from China, Canada, and India, but they tell us little about the animals that made them apart from their basic shape.

Between 620 and 550 million years ago (during the Vendian Period) relatively large, complex, soft-bodied multicellular animals appear in the fossil record for the first time. While found in several localities around the world, this particular group of animals is generally known as the Ediacaran fauna, after the site in Australia where they were first discovered.

The Ediacaran animals are puzzling in that there is little or no evidence of any skeletal hard parts i.e. they were soft-bodied organisms, and while some of them may have belonged to groups that survive today others don't seem to bear any relationship to animals we know. Although many of the Ediacaran organisms have been compared to modern-day jellyfish or worms, they have also been described as resembling a mattress, with tough outer walls around fluid-filled internal cavities - rather like a sponge.

As a group, Ediacaran animals had a flat, quilted appearance and many showed radial symmetry. They ranged in size form 1cm to >1m, and have been classified into three main groups on the basis of their shape: discoidal, frond-like, or ovate-elongate. The large variety of Ediacaran animals is significant, as it suggests there must have been a lengthy period of evolution prior to their first appearance in the fossil record.
Animals continued to diversify in the Ordovician seas (505 - 440 million years ago). They were mostly invertebrates, including graptolites , which were stick-like branching colonies of tiny animals, together with brachiopods, trilobites, cephalopods, corals, crinoids and conodonts. We now place the conodonts with the chordates, but for a long time they were known only by their tiny, but very common, teeth.

In terms of number of species invertebrates were by far the most common Ordovician animals - as they still are today. However, members of another taxon were also evolving in the Ordovician seas. These were the fish.

Like the conodonts, fish are members of the chordate phylum because they display certain defining characteristics: a dorsal stiffening rod called the notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits and a tail that extends beyond the anus. However, fish are placed in the subphylum Vertebrata , because they also show the development of skeletal features such as a backbone, skull, and limb bones.
Not all the modern groups of fish were represented in the Ordovician oceans. At this time only the jawless fish had evolved from a chordate ancestor. The sharks and their relatives and two extinct groups, the placoderms (which had bony plates covering their heads) and the acanthodians (the first known jawed vertebrates, with a skeleton of cartilage) made their appearance in the Silurian. However, neither the sharks nor the agnathans became common until the Devonian. The other two living lineages, the ray-finned (e.g. carp and kahawai) and the lobe-finned fish (e.g. lungfish and the coelacanth), evolved during the Devonian period.
Agnathans, or jawless fish, were the earliest fish: an excellent fossil of Haikouichthys ercaicunensis dates back about 530 million years, to the Cambrian. Previously the earliest-known agnathans were dated to around 480 million years ago. Agnathans have traditionally been placed with the vertebrates due to the presence of a skull, although the modern forms such as hagfish lack a vertebral column. The earliest agnathans were Ostracoderms. They were bottom-feeders and were almost entirely covered in armour plates. When the sharks and bony fish began to evolve, around 450 million years ago, most ostracoderms became extinct. Only the lineage that produced the modern hagfish and lampreys survived.

By the Devonian period two major animal groups dominated the land: the tetrapods (4-legged terrestrial vertebrates) and the arthropods, including arachnids and wingless insects. The first tetrapods were amphibians, such as Ichthyostega, and were closely related to a group of fish known as lobe-finned fish e.g. Eusthenopteron . Once thought to be extinct, the coelacanth is a living representative of this group.

Eusthenopteron had a number of exaptations that pre-adapted it to life on land: it had limbs (with digits) that allowed it to move around on the bottom of pools, lungs - which meant it could gulp air at the surface, and the beginnings of a neck. This last is important as a terrestrial predator cannot rely on water current to bring food into its mouth, but must move its head to catch prey. And the bones in Eusthenopteron's fins are almost identical to those in the limbs of the earliest amphibians, an example of homology.

Ichthyostega's skull was almost identical to that of the lobe-finned fish Eusthenopteron, a definite neck separated its body from its head, and it retained a deep tail with fins. While Ichthyostega had four strong limbs, the form of its hind legs suggests that it did not spend all its time on land.

All modern tetrapods have a maximum of 5 digits on each limb, and are thus said to have a pentadactyl limb. For a long time scientists believed that pentadactyly was the ancestral state for tetrapods. However, careful examination of the fossils of early amphibians such as Ichthyostega and Acanthostega has revealed the presence of up to 8 toes on each foot!

In addition, these early amphibians were large-bodied animals with strong bodies and prominent ribs - quite different in appearance from modern representatives such as frogs and axolotls.
It was originally believed that the tetrapods evolved during periods of drought, when the ability to move between pools would be an advantage. The animals would also have been able to take advantage of terrestrial prey, such as arthropods. Juvenile animals could avoid predation by the land-based adults by living in shallow water.

However, fossil and geological evidence tells us that the early tetrapods lived in lagoons in tropical regions, so that drought was not an issue. They were unlikely to be feeding on land: arthropods are small and fast-moving, unlikely prey for large, sluggish amphibians. But amphibians that laid their eggs on land, rather than in water, would be at a selective advantage, avoiding predation by aquatic vertebrates (such as other amphibians and fish) on gametes, eggs and hatchlings.

Even today some amphibians e.g. the Eleutherodactylid frogs of Australia and Indonesia lay their eggs in soil on the land. However, they must still be in a moist environment, and the size of the egg is restricted to less than 1.5cm in diameter. This is because the egg is dependent on diffusion alone for gas exchange, and means that the embryo must develop rapidly into a food-seeking larval form rather than undergo prolonged development within the egg.

In the Devonian seas, brachiopods had become a dominant invertebrate group, while the fish continued to evolve, with sharks becoming the dominant marine vertebrates. The placoderms and acanthodian fish were quite diverse during the Devonian, but their numbers then dwindled rapidly and both groups became extinct by the end of the Carboniferous period. Lobe-finned fish also peaked in numbers during the Devonian.

One of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous period (360 - 268 million years ago) was the amniotic egg, which allowed early reptiles to move away from waterside habitats and colonise dry regions. The amniotic egg allowed the ancestors of birds, mammals, and reptiles to reproduce on land by preventing the embryo inside from drying out, so eggs could be laid away from the water. It also meant that in contrast to the amphibians the reptiles could produce fewer eggs at any one time, because there was less risk of predation on the eggs. Reptiles don't go through a larval food-seeking stage, but undergo direct development into a miniature adult form while in the egg, and fertilisation is internal.

The earliest date for development of the amniotic egg is about 320 million years ago. However, reptiles didn't undergo any major adaptive radiation for another 20 million years. Current thinking is that these early amniotes were still spending time in the water and came ashore mainly to lay their eggs, rather than to feed. It wasn't until the evolution of herbivory that new reptile groups appeared, able to take advantage of the abundant plant life of the Carboniferous.

Early reptiles belonged to a group called the cotylosaurs. Hylonomus and Paleothyris were two members of this group. They were small, lizard-sized animals with amphibian-like skulls, shoulders, pelvis and limbs, and intermediate teeth and vertebrae. The rest of the skeleton was reptilian. Many of these new "reptilian" features are also seen in little, modern, amphibians (which may also have direct-developing eggs laid on land e.g. New Zealand's leiopelmid frogs, so perhaps these features were simply associated with the small body size of the first reptiles.

A major transition in the evolution of life occurred when mammals evolved from one lineage of reptiles. This transition began during the Permian (286 - 248 million years ago), when the reptile group that included Dimetrodon gave rise to the "beast-faced" therapsids. (The other major branching, the "lizard-faced" sauropsids, gave rise to birds and modern reptiles). These mammal-like reptiles in turn gave rise to the cynodonts e.g. Thrinaxodon during the Triassic period.

This lineage provides an excellent series of transitional fossils. The development of a key mammalian trait, the presence of only a single bone in the lower jaw (compared to several in reptiles) can be traced in the fossil history of this group. It includes the excellent transitional fossils, Diarthrognathus and Morganucodon, whose lower jaws have both reptilian and mammalian articulations with the upper. Other novel features found in this lineage include the development of different kinds of teeth (a feature known as heterodonty), the beginnings of a secondary palate, and enlargement of the dentary bone in the lower jaw. Legs are held directly underneath the body, an evolutionary advance that occurred independently in the ancestors of the dinosaurs.

The end of the Permian was marked by perhaps the greatest mass extinction ever to occur. Some estimates suggest that up to 90% of the species then living became extinct. (Recent research has suggested that this event, like the better-known end-Cretaceous event, was caused by the impact of an asteroid.) During the subsequent Triassic period (248 - 213 million years ago), the survivors of that event radiated into the large number of now-vacant ecological niches.

However, at the end of the Permian it was the dinosaurs, not the mammal-like reptiles, which took advantage of the newly available terrestrial niches to diversify into the dominant land vertebrates. In the sea, the ray-finned fish began the major adaptive radiation that would see them become the most species-rich of all vertebrate classes.

Sunday, 14 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : Evolution of plants on earth by nature

Prokaryotes are the organisms classified as Bacteria and Archaea, and are the most successful & abundant organisms on Earth. In fact they have been THE dominant group on earth since life appeared and for around 2000 million years were the only life form on earth. Prokaryotes as a group have the largest biomass on the planet e.g. in the oceans, prokaryotes make up 90% or greater than the total weight of living things; there may be 2.5 x 109 prokaryote cells in a gram of fertile soil. Prokaryotes are also the most ancient organisms on Earth: the earliest known fossil cells belong to a prokaryote, and come from rocks in Western Australia that date back 3500 million years. All prokaryotes are small cells that lack the complex internal structures, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, found in eukaryotic cells. Also, although prokaryotes possess DNA on a chromosome, it is not enclosed in a nucleus.

Because prokaryotes are largely invisible to the human eye we tend to forget about them. However, they contributed to the development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere early in Earth's history, and are essential to the processes of decomposition and nutrient cycling, a key role in all ecosystems. They also made a significant contribution to the evolution of the better-known, eukaryote, life forms.

Present-day prokaryotes may resemble early fossils, but they are modern organisms that have successfully adapted to modern environmental conditions. They are found in some of the most extreme environments on Earth, including Antarctica, the depths of the oceans and deep in rocks, round deep-sea vents, and in boiling thermal springs and are ever present in our human environments, including cities, homes and the human body.

The Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are a group of prokaryotes that are extremely important both ecologically (especially in global carbon and nitrogen cycles) and evolutionary terms. Stromatolites, which are formed by cyanobacteria, provide living and fossil evidence of cyanobacteria going back 2700 million years. Today stromatolites grow only in shallow, salty pools in hot, dry climates (e.g. Shark Bay in Western Australia), and their abundance in ancient rocks implies similar environmental conditions in those times. Stromatolites and other cyanobacteria were the main contributors to the marked increase in atmospheric oxygen concentrations that began around 2000 million years ago. Today, cyanobacteria are found everywhere - in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments and as symbionts e.g. lichen - and contribute up to 50% of the atmosphere's oxygen.

DNA evidence suggests that the first eukaryotes (green plants) evolved from prokaryotes (through endosymbiotic events) between 2500 and 1000 million years ago. Fossils of eukaryotes that resemble living brown algae have been found in sedimentary rocks from China that are 1700 million years old, while possibly the oldest photosynthetic eukaryote, Grypania, comes from rocks 2100 million years old. Note that the diversity of modern algal groups, and particularly of their chloroplasts, suggests that these endosymbiotic events were not unusual. Modern algae comprise a range of organisms with very different structures but identical photosynthetic pigments. This suggests that very different host organisms have formed a symbiosis with the same photosynthetic cells. That is, the algal groups must have evolved through separate endosymbiotic events, and the group as a whole is identified on the basis of a similar level of structure, rather than on its evolutionary origins. Such groups, where the members have several different evolutionary origins, are described as polyphyletic.

Cyanobacteria have a close evolutionary relationship with eukaryotes. They have the same photosynthetic pigments as the chloroplasts of algae and land plants. Chloroplasts are the right size to be descended from bacteria, reproduce in the same manner, by binary fission, and have their own genome in the form of a single circular DNA molecule. The enzymes and transport systems found on the folded inner membranes of chloroplasts are similar to those found on the cell membranes of modern cyanobacteria, as are their ribosomes. These similarities between cyanobacteria and chloroplasts suggest an evolutionary link between the two, and can be explained by the theory of endosymbiosis.

For 1500 million years photosynthetic organisms remained in the sea. This is because, in the absence of a protective ozone layer, the land was bathed in lethal levels of UV radiation. Once atmospheric oxygen levels were high enough the ozone layer formed, meaning that it was possible for living things to venture onto the land. The seashore would have been enormously important in the colonisation of land. In this zone algae would have been exposed to fresh water running off the land (and would have colonised the freshwater habitat before making the move to terrestrial existence). They would also be exposed to an alternating wet and desiccating environment. Adaptations to survive drying out would have had strong survival value, and it is important to note that seaweeds are poikilohydric and able to withstand periods of desiccation.
The earliest evidence for the appearance of land plants, in the form of fossilised spores, comes from the Ordovician period (510 - 439 million years ago), a time when the global climate was mild and extensive shallow seas surrounded the low-lying continental masses. (These spores were probably produced by submerged plants that raised their sporangia above the water - wind dispersal would offer a means of colonising other bodies of water.) However, DNA-derived dates suggest an even earlier colonisation of the land, around 700 million years ago.

Thursday, 11 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : How oxygen formed by nature for evolution of life

We all know we can't live without oxygen, 400 million year ago oxygen is also formed by nature. But question arise how oxygen formed? Scientists agree that there’s oxygen from ocean plants in every breath we take. Most of this oxygen comes from tiny ocean plants – called phytoplankton – that live near the water’s surface and drift with the currents. Like all plants, they photosynthesize – that is, they use sunlight and carbon dioxide to make food. A byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen.

Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between 50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. They aren’t sure because it’s a tough thing to calculate. In the lab, scientists can determine how much oxygen is produced by a single phytoplankton cell. The hard part is figuring out the total number of these microscopic plants throughout Earth’s oceans. Phytoplankton wax and wane with the seasons. Phytoplankton blooms happen in spring when there’s more available light and nutrients.

And the density of phytoplankton varies. They sometimes float just at the surface. At other times and places they can be a hundred meters – about 100 yards – thick. By the way, by about 400 million years ago, scientists say, enough oxygen had accumulated in Earth’s atmosphere for the evolution of air-breathing land animals. But free oxygen by itself wasn’t enough. Another form of oxygen was also essential: the build-up of a special kind of oxygen at the top of Earth’s atmosphere. There, where three atoms of oxygen bonded together, ozone formed. This layer of ozone at the top of Earth’s atmosphere shields land organisms from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

So in this way nature created oxygen. Nature set the all perfect condition for the evolution of life

Tuesday, 9 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : Origins of life on earth

Now nature starts its main role to create a life on earth.Life on Earth has been changing at various rates since our common ancestor first appeared more than 3.5 billion years ago. After collision of earth with theia, earth start come its shape.Gravity pulled earth and earth comes in its spherical shape.The Earth's crust had cooled and the oceans had formed and conditions were more suitable for the formation of life. The first living organism formed from simple molecules present in the Earth's vast oceans between 3.8 and 3.5 billion years ago. This primitive life form is know as the common ancestor.As Earth began to take solid form, it had no free oxygen in its atmosphere. It was so hot that the water droplets in its atmosphere could not settle to form surface water or ice. Its first atmosphere was also so poisonous, comprised of helium and hydrogen, that nothing would have been able to survive. 

The common ancestor is the organism from which all life on Earth, living and extinct, descended .We know that life began at least 3.5 billion years ago, because that is the age of the oldest rocks with fossil evidence of life on earth.  These rocks are rare because subsequent geologic processes have reshaped the surface of our planet, often destroying older rocks while making new ones. Nonetheless, 3.5 billion year old rocks with fossils can be found in Africa and Australia.  They are usually a mix of solidified volcanic lavas and sedimentary cherts.  The fossils occur in sedimentary cherts..

Earth’s second atmosphere was formed mostly from the out gassing of such volatile compounds as water vapor, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrochloric acid and sulfur produced by the constant volcanic eruptions that besieged the Earth. It had no free oxygen.
About 4.1 billion years ago, the Earth’s surface — or crust — began to cool and stabilize, creating the solid surface with its rocky terrain. Clouds formed as the Earth began to cool, producing enormous volumes of rainwater that formed the oceans. For the next 1.3 billion years (3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago), the Archean Period, first life began to appear and the world’s landmasses began to form. Earth’s initial life forms were bacteria, which could survive in the highly toxic atmosphere that existed during this time.

Nature nature made environment for the evolvement of life. 

Monday, 8 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : How was moon created by nature

Everyone don't know that how was moon created by nature. It was also during this eon , roughly 4.48 billion years ago (or 70–110 million years after the start of the Solar System) – that the Earth’s only satellite, the Moon, was formed. The most common theory, known as the “giant impact hypothesis” proposes that the Moon originated after a body the size of Mars (sometimes named Theia) struck the proto-Earth a glancing blow.

When the giant impact happened, Earth's iron core had already formed. The impactor itself also had an iron core which melted on impact and was added to Earth's core. Some of the debris from the rocky mantles of both Earth and the impactor was ejected into orbit, forming the much smaller Moon. Because so little metallic iron was blown out to orbit, the Moon ended up with a tiny core. And new findings support this hypothesis. The lunar rock samples matched the rocks from Earth's crust and mantle, but bore no resemblance to the Earth's interior rock.

After massive collision between earth and theia, their small particles scattered in space. The particles pulled together by the gravity and earth and moon comes in its shape.

This all was the strategy of nature to create the life on the earth. But still there was many poisonous gases present on the earth so there no sign of life yet. It  wonder me sometimes that how big the universe is, and life is only evolved in our planet earth only because of nature powers.
Their is billion, trillion galaxies and planet present in the space but nature create life on this small planet earth. 

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : How was our planet earth created by nature

After the formation of our galaxy, nature start creating our planet earth.
Just how did the Earth ,our home and the place where life as we know it evolved ,come to be created in the first place? In some fiery furnace atop a great mountain? On some divine forge with the hammer of the gods shaping it out of pure ether? How about from a great ocean known as Chaos, where something was created out of nothing and then filled with all living creatures?

The history of Earth concerns the development of the planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to the understanding of the main events of the Earth's past. The age of Earth is approximately one-third of the age of the universe. An immense amount of biological and geological change has occurred in that time span.

Earth formed around 4.56 billion (4.56×109) years ago by accretion from the solar nebula. Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere, but it contained almost no oxygen and would have been toxic to humans and most modern life. Much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism. 
There is no sign of life, but nature have many ways to create a life.

Sunday, 7 June 2015

NATURE GAVE US LIFE : How was the universe created by nature

How was the universe created by nature

We all know the nature powers and laws of nature. Universe is also created by the nature,we all know about the bid bang theory.
Before the big bang, scientists believe, the entire vastness of the observable universe, including all of its matter and radiation, was compressed into a hot, dense mass just a few millimeters across. This nearly incomprehensible state is theorized to have existed for just a fraction of the first second of time.
Big bang proponents suggest that some 10 billion to 20 billion years ago, a massive blast allowed all the universe's known matter and energy—even space and time themselves—to spring from some ancient and unknown type of energy.

The theory maintains that, in the instant—a trillion-trillionth of a second—after the big bang, the universe expanded with incomprehensible speed from its pebble-size origin to astronomical scope. Expansion has apparently continued, but much more slowly, over the ensuing billions of years.

Scientists can't be sure exactly how the universe evolved after the big bang. Many believe that as time passed and matter cooled, more diverse kinds of atoms began to form, and they eventually condensed into the stars and galaxies of our present universe.

First off, there weren’t always stars in the Universe, and the Milky Way hasn’t been around forever. After the big bang happened, and the Universe cooled for a bit, all there was was gas uniformly spread throughout. Small irregularities allowed the gas to coalesce into larger and larger enough clumps, heating up and eventually starting the  nuclear fusion that powers stars. The stars started to gravitationally attract each other into larger groups. The oldest of these groups of stars are called globular clusters, and some of these clusters in the Milky Way galaxy date back to the very, very early Universe.

Not all of the stars in the Milky Way date back to the primordial Universe, though. The Milky Way produces more than 7 stars per year, but it acquired much of its mass in another fashion. The Milky Way is often referred to as a “cannibal” galaxy, because during formation it swallowed up smaller galaxies. Astronomers think that this is how many larger galaxies have come to be the size they are today.

In fact, the Milky Way is currently gobbling up another galaxy, (and a stellar cluster) at this very moment. Called the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, the remnant stars are 45,000 light years from the galactic center, and a mere 25,000 light years from our Sun.

Older stars in the Milky Way are to be found distributed spherically in the galactic halo, meaning that it’s likely the galaxy had a spherical shape to start out. Younger stars in the galaxy are located in the disk, evidence that as it started to get heavier, the mutual orbit of material started the galaxy spinning, which resulted in the spiral one sees in representations of the Milky Way.

After big bang our galaxy milky way was also  formed. But  milky way was also taken time to form completely.

So this is the power of  nature . But there is no any sign of life yet, there is only the stars and galaxies. After formation of the galaxy nature start creating our planet earth. So here is nature start creation of life.